Hippocrates of Kos was the originator of mobilisation and manipulation of the skeletal joints.  Greek physicians were widely dispersed in the Roman world.  The techniques were subsequently handed down and became widespread, as community medicine, until the foundation of the orthopaedic profession. Fractures and dislocations were then treated in hospitals.  Tom Brett started teaching modernised versions of these ancient techniques in 2008.  For more information  see   and    

The osteopathic profession was founded by A T Still in 1892 and the chiropractic profession by D. D Palmer in 1897.  There is no official definition of osteopathy or chiropractic. These professions are reguluated by the GOsC and the  GCC respectively.

Most treatments include massage, mobilisation and manipulation.  The massage is used to relax the muscles. Mobilisation can be defined as specific passive movements to a joint, either oscillatory or sustained, to reduce pain and stiffness affecting movement and to restore normal joint motion.  This passive movement is performed by the therapist at a speed slow enough that the patient can stop the movement.  It may be applied with an oscillatory motion or sustained stretch intended to decrease pain or increase mobility.  Adjustment of the skeletal joints is achieved by a wide variety of techniques some using force with a low amplitude.  The modernised techniques taught and practised by graduates of Tom Brett’s courses use Vector Change  and Brett’s Procedure, which were specifically developed by  him and use no force in the adjustment  of the musculo-skeletal system. More details of the various clinical manipulative therapists are available in:

               Bonesetting, Chiropractic,

         Manipulative Therapy, Osteopathy -

                    What’s the difference?

(460 - 377 Bc)



Bonesetters D D PALMER 
(1845 - 1913)


 (1828 - 1917)